Saturday, November 19, 2005

Shi'i, Abu 'abd Allah Ash-

Ash-Shi'i appeared among the Kutama, a Berber tribe of North Africa, at the end of the 9th century, proclaiming himself a precursor of the mahdi (messianic deliverer) and urging the people to revolt. He had met the Berbers at an earlier time during a pilgrimage to Mecca. After

Monday, October 17, 2005

Oscar I

Oscar's early liberal outlook and progressive ideas on such issues as fiscal policy, freedom of the press, and penal reform fortuitously coincided with a period of social, political, and industrial change. After his accession

Thursday, July 28, 2005


Kotamadya (municipality) and kabupaten (regency), Jawa Timur provinsi (“province”), Indonesia. Malang regency has an area of 3,391 square miles (8,782 square km). It is principally agricultural and known for its production of vegetables, fruits, and flowers. Malang is located on a plateau between Mount Kawi (8,697 feet [2,651 m]) and the Tengger Mountains, and the city enjoys a comfortable climate. The

Tuesday, July 26, 2005

Argentina, Independence

In Argentina the independence movement began in 1806–07, when British attacks on Buenos Aires were repelled in the two battles known as the Reconquista and the Defensa. Also important there, as elsewhere in Spanish America, were the ramifications of Napoleon I's intervention in Spain, beginning in 1808, which plunged that country into a civil war between two rival

Saturday, July 23, 2005

Race, The persistence of “race”

Race also continues to be the focus of discourse on specific topics. Among these are IQ, as in Steven Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (1981); Mark Snyderman and Stanley Rothman, The IQ Controversy: The Media and Public Policy (1988); and Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (1994); and sports, as in John Hoberman, Darwin's Athletes: How Sport Has Damaged Black America and Preserved the Myth of Race (1997); and Jon Entine, Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We Are Afraid to Talk About It (2000).

Friday, July 08, 2005

Popish Plot

(1678), in English history, a totally fictitious but widely believed plot in which it was alleged that Jesuits were planning the assassination of King Charles II in order to bring his Roman Catholic brother, the Duke of York (afterward King James II), to the throne. The allegations were fabricated by Titus Oates (q.v.), a renegade Anglican clergyman who had feigned conversion

Friday, July 01, 2005

Malaparte, Curzio

Malaparte was a volunteer in World War I and then became active in journalism. In 1924 he founded the Roman periodical La Conquista dello stato, and in 1926 he joined Massimo